Node 3. It is very difficult to troubleshoot the ring network. A network server is not needed to control network connectivity between each workstation. Ring topologies may be used in either LANs (local area networks) or WANs (wide area networks). Network topology is the way a community is arranged, together with the bodily or logical description of how hyperlinks and nodes are set up to relate to every other. It is used as a backup in case the primary ring fails. What Is The Ring Topology? In the past, the ring topology was most commonly used in schools, offices, and smaller buildings where networks were smaller. Ring topology forms a ring connecting devices with its exactly two neighboring devices. Ring topology is a type of network configuration that connects its devices in a circular or sequential path. Both Star and Ring are the types of network Topologies which could be defined as the arrangement of a network which comprises of nodes and connecting lines via sender and receiver. In short, Ring topology is a pattern of interconnecting nodes in a closed curricular loop where one node is connected to two nearby nodes as an intermediate. Attention reader! But we need two outgoing wires. Ring topology Characteristics . That’s the definition of the ring topology, but with this article, you will get all the details related to ring topology along with its advantages and disadvantages. Before discussing ring technology we have to know about what is network topology. As explained above, IBM Token Ring (802.5) networks imitate a ring at layer 2 but use a physical star at layer 1. Token ring topology was introduced in the 1980’s and become a great competitor for Ethernet users. A hybrid network topology is a combination of two or more different basic network topologies. Star and Ring topology are the types of network topologies. Dual-ring topology is a network redundant topology where nodes are connected using two concentric rings with four branches. A ring topology may also be called an active topology because messages are passed to each device in the ring. Wires may be fiber optics, copper wires or coaxial cables. One computer or device is connected with two other devices on either side. The ring topology is relatively easy to troubleshoot because a computer stops receiving data from its upstream neighbour. Basically, ring topology is divided into the two … Each networked device is connected to two others, like points on a circle. In case a new node to be added then entire connection is to be broken down. The ring topology connects computers on a single circle of cable. Sending and receiving of data takes place by the help of TOKEN. In general, the term “Topology” is simply a pattern of the interconnecting nodes (system) in a network, and ring topology is just a sub-category of broad term topology. Each networked device is connected to two others, like points on a circle. The ring architecture is a distributed architecture, with minimal connectivity and a topology of two links connected to every node as shown in Figure and forms unbroken circular configuration. It … The outer network could be the Internet or any other network. Now this type op topology is very old and rarely used. Here, the last node is combined with a … A failure in any cable or device breaks the … Advantages of Ring Topology: Easier to manage as compared to bus topology. Nodes connected together in a wireless LAN may broadcast via radio or optical links. More expensive, as compared to a star topology. Token Ring does not use a physical ring topology. Other articles where Ring topology is discussed: telecommunications network: Broadcast network: …typically arranged in a bus, ring, or star topology, as shown in the figure. Ring Topology : In Ring topology there is circular data path.Each of the devices are connected to two other device in the network.Data is transmitted from sender to receiver by passing it from one device to another until the receiver device is reached.If any of the connection is broken then the whole network crashes because they are connected sequentially.This topology is basically used for … A token moves around the network, and it is passed from computer to computer until it … When … The router works as a gateway between the LAN and the outer network. A dual ring topology has two rings instead of a single ring as in ring topology. Similarly, in a computer network, a connected device can do communication from either side to reach another device or server in-ring topology. The secondary ring provides redundancy in case of a failure in first ring, and also can serve as an additional data path. Token. In Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each-other in such a way that they make a closed loop. Additional workstations can be added without impacting performance of the network. We can choose … A link failure can fail the entire network as the signal will not travel forward due to failure. Others permit data to move in either direction, called bidirectional. Token: It is a frame that circulates around the network. A token is nothing but just an empty frame. The crucial difference between star and ring topology is that the star topology is suitable for a primary-secondary type of connection whereas ring topology is more convenient for the peer-to-peer connection. Advantages of Hybrid topology . For example, it can be a star ring, star bus topology, etc. Ring topology is poor extensible. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and will take down the entire segment. 2. The configuration, or topology, of a community, is key to finding out its performance. A token or special packet keeps traversing the ring path. Handles a large … In Ring topology, each node is connected to its left and right node in ring fashion and information can flow from one node to another in single direction. The medium access control method in a ring topology is token passing. Network topology is an arrangement of nodes in the network. The topology where network/communication devices are arranged, forming a complete closed path or a loop is called the ring topology. Each connected device connects to two others adjacent to it, similar to the points of a circle, giving the network configuration its name, ring topology. This brings better performance than a bus topology. Bus topology is a multipoint data communication. The computers are connected in the form of a ring that’s why it is called as ring topology. Although there is a physical connection in each direction, although, in a unidirectional ring, the data can be transmitted only in one direction. which one cable connects all nodes and forms a. closed loop. Ring Topology; Tree Topology; Bus Topology; Mesh Topology; Hybrid Topology; Bus Topology. A ring topology is a network configuration where device connections create a circular data path. A star topology is a network topology where each individual device of the network is attached to one central node whereas a ring topology is a network configuration in which device connections create a circular data path. Another disadvantage of the ring is that if any device is added to or removed from the ring, … What is Ring Topology. Following are the important differences between Star and Ring Topology − Furthermore, a ring network (ring topology) is a network topology in which each node connects to … Working of Token passing. In ring topology, the data circulates in a logical ring shape within the network. Information can travel from any node to any other node. Common configurations include the bus topology, linear bus, mesh topology, ring topology, star topology, tree topology and hybrid topology.See each of these topology definitions for additional information and visual examples. which devices are connected to each other in. If the token is captured then only the station sends the data else to wait for the token. We can categorize … https://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-star-and-ring-topology This allows only one computer to do the transmission at a time. In Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each-other in such a way that they make a closed loop. All data flows in one direction, reducing the chance of packet collisions. Topologies are either physical or logical.. Also Read: Explain the Layers of TCP/IP Reference Model with Neat Diagram. In the star topology, all the computers connect with the help of a hub. In the ring, topology signals are circulating at all times, which develops unwanted power consumption. ring topology:All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. 6. Ring Topology Ring Topology Diagram. A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node – a ring. Don’t stop learning now. The data in a ring topology flow in a clockwise direction. Hybrid topology. Star Topology Star Topology Diagram. Rings can be unidirectional, with all traffic travelling either clockwise or anticlockwise around the ring, or bidirectional (as in SONET/SDH).Because a … Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology 1. Other articles where Ring topology is discussed: telecommunications network: Broadcast network: …typically arranged in a bus, ring, or star topology, as shown in the figure. Ethernet systemsuse a bus topology. Ring topology is used in LAN. Most ring topologies allow packets to travel only in one direction, called a unidirectional ring network. Thus one single continuous communication route … In this Computer Network topology, all terminals are linked each other with ring form, and all data is traveled from one by one terminal until they chase their destination point. All data being transferred over the network must pass through each workstation on the network, which can make it slower than a. 5. This enables no collision in the ring network. … In this topology, point to point connection is established between two devices. The entire network will be impacted if one workstation shuts down. Ring topology Typically, all messages travel through a ring in the same direction. Ring topology is cheaper than Mesh Topology. In this topology, point to point connection is established between two devices. Ring Topology is a network cabling scheme in. In ring topology, the information is travel from nodes to nodes in ring manner in one direction. Only a host that holds a token can send data, and tokens are released when receipt of the data is confirmed. Token ring is a structure of data communication between computers in a ring formation. In this topology, When on the computer sends a signal to the cable all the computer receives the information but the computer whose address matches with the signal accepts the data. This cable is called a central node, and all other nodes are connected … A ring topology is a network configuration where device connections create a circular data path. Tree topology. Ring topology is where nodes are arranged in a circle (or ring). In a ring network, packets of data travel from one device to the next until they reach their destination. In Bus topology, all the nodes i.e computers as well as servers are connected to the single cable i.e called bus with the help of interface connectors. So for this reason, if the single device fails in the ring topology, it affects the entire network and this is the biggest disadvantage of ring topology. Data travels around the network, in one direction. Messages travel around the ring, with each node reading those messages addressed to it. Each computer can react to another computer without traversing to a central server. Mesh topology is also poor extensible. Data travels around the network, in one direction. Whenever a computer needs to send the data, it tries to hold the token. In a ring topology, all devices in the network are connected via a cable that loops in a logical ring or circle. Each workstation is connected to two other components on either side, and it communicates with these two adjacent neighbors. Data traffic issues, since all the data is circulating in a ring. In a Ring topology, every computer has an equal access to the network. Transmitted messages travel from node to node around the ring. A node on the opposite side of the ring blocks on of the ports leading back to the root switch, creating a topology that … This type of topology combines all basic network topology types, including bus, star, ring, and mesh.In this way, the hybrid topology presents a mixture of all basic types of features. Ring topology: A ring topology is a topology for a Local Area Network in which every device has exactly two neighbours for communication purposes. In a ring at a point, there could be two paths to move one is left and the other is right. The main difference between star and ring topology is that a star topology connects all the devices to one central device forming a structure similar to a star while ring topology connects every device to another two devices forming a structure similar to a ring.. A computer network is a collection of devices connected together to communicate with each other. There is a different arrangement of nodes and nodes are connected with the wires in different shapes. Dual-ring topology is made up of two rings connected to a network. There can be two types of ring topologies. Token Passing (in brief) : Token … A station which wants to transmit waits for the token to arrive. One switch-in this case, the switch in the central office-is the root of the spanning tree. Copyright © 2020 CsPsProtocol all Rights Reserved ! 3: Nodes: For N nodes, N links are needed. In ring topology the data circulate from one computer to another. Adding or removing computers will also affect the whole network since every computer is connected … That is, all of the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Tree topology combines the characteristics of bus topology and star topology. If there are n nodes then there are n links present. Nodes (computers) are connected to each other through hubs, switches, routers and wires. Alternatively referred to as a network topology, a topology is the physical configuration of a network that determines how the network's computers are connected. There is one cable and devices are connected with drop lines to this cable. Similarly, in a computer network, a connected device can do communication from either side to reach another device or server in-ring topology. In-Ring Topology, If device 1 wants to transmit data to device 3, data must be travel from device 1 to device 2 and then to its destination at device 3. The hardware needed to connect each workstation to the network is more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs/switches. In a ring network, packets of data travel from one device to the next until they reach their destination. Data can transfer between workstations at high speeds. The closed way of this topology can be of a circular, triangular, quadrilateral, or any other shape. Topology means the shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system. In this type, the entire computer network is divided into network segments. Ring topology Typically, all messages travel through a ring in the same direction. Link failure in one direction will not break the communication. Ring topology: A ring topology is a topology for a Local Area Network in which every device has exactly two neighbours for communication purposes. Simplified Tutorials | Learning Tech Online. RING Topology. Depending on the network card used in each computer of the ring topology, a coaxial cable or an RJ-45 network cable is used to connect computers together. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. Since each device is only connected to the ones on either side, when data is transmitted, the packets also travel along the circle, moving through each of the intermediate nodes … A tree … Token passing: It is a network access method in which token is passed from one node to another node. Advantages of Dual-Ring Topology The primary advantage of dual ring topology is its efficiency: because each node has two connections on either side, information can be sent both clockwise and counterclockwise along the network. In-ring topology, we need two side communication. The … On the basis of nature and characteristics of both, we can distinguish between them. What is ring network topology in Computer network, Ring Topology Advantages and Disadvantages. I this tutorial we will understand how we can set up a network as a ring topology, what are the advantages and disadvantages? A ring topology can be a logical circle that has no start and no end. This topology competes with its standards and stood with its technology at high time. In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighboring devices for communication purpose. Very easy to set up as we need a device with three-port only. Together, devices in a ring topology are referred to as a ring network. It is called a ring topology as its formation is like a ring. For example a combination of star and mesh topology is known as hybrid topology. Network terms, Ring status, Token Ring, Topology, Network and network card help and support. Each ring works independently until one is disabled when the network fails. Briefly, Ring topology is also known as circular topology which is a closed-loop connection using a local area network where the data packets are transmitted or circulated within the ring network frame. Form Switch/Hub there will be two cables in each direction to connect the neighbor HUB/Switch. So every computer on this ring has exactly two neighbor, communication purpose each stage packet is send around ring to reach its find destination. The closed way of this topology can be of a circular, triangular, quadrilateral, or any other shape. Pros of Ring Topology. The two rings are called as the "primary ring" and the "secondary ring". Dual ring brings redundancy in ring topology. Architecture Structure: Each device connects to the central device: Each device connects to two other devices: Data Transmission: Data from all devices travel through the central device: Data travel either in clockwise or anticlockwise direction … How each LAN computer will get the IP address? On other hand, Ring Topology is the network topology in which the nodes are connected to each other completely via dedicated link in which the information is travelled from nodes to nodes. Instead, it uses a physical star and logical ring topology. However, today, the ring topology is seldom used, having been switched to another type of network topology for improved performance, stability, or support. Ring topology refers to a specific kind of network setup in which devices are connected in a ring and pass information to or from each other according to their adjacent proximity in the ring structure. Example of ring topology. Get hold of all the important CS … This could be a low-cost hub. Ring Topology may be a network configuration where device connections create a circular data path. Token ring topology was introduced in the 1980’s and become a great competitor for Ethernet users. 3. Each network segment is connecte… In a ring topology, the network that connects to the computers form a logical ring-like communication path. In these configurations, data moves in opposite directions around the rings. Disadvantages of Ring Topology. Ring topology. Reduces the chances of collision because of the token passing. In a ring at a point, there could be two paths to move one is left and the other is right. There are no terminated ends. A ring topology is a network topology which each node connected to two other nodes then it form a closed loop or follow the continuous pathway.Then the data transfer from node to node. 4: Information Routing: Information travels in single direction from one node to another. Mesh topology is generally suited for WAN. A topology is a relationship exist between the links and linking devices (nodes) to each other which is represented by a geometric representation. This topology is like a bus topology because all nodes connected to the single cable but it has no terminated ends instead all nodes are connected in a closed-loop. Ring Topology A short message (called a token) is circulated around the ring, being passed from station to station. the shape of a ring or a loop. Node 4 . For those of you who want to know what the characteristics of Ring topology, advantages, and disadvantages of Ring topology, more can see the following reviews. 802.5 (Token Ring) networks do not use a ring topology at layer 1. A ring topology, also known as a ring network, is a network topology where each node is connected to two other nodes (forward and reverse) correctly to form a continuous signal transmission path. • "Token Ring is an example of a ring topology." It is difficult to find faults in a ring network topology. Ring topology or ring is one of network topology that connects one PC with another PC is a circular circuit, similar to a ring. The physical shape of the network need not be in ring or circular shape. A local-area network (LAN) whose topology is a ring. Advantages of Ring Topology Every … But the computer can have only one IP in a LAN over the ethernet card. 1. The ring topology is easy to install and easy to trouble … In Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each-other in such a way that they make a closed loop. One computer or device is connected with two other … One of the advantages of ring networks is that they can span larger distances than other types of networks, such as bus networks, because each node regenerates messages as they pass through it.. … Each connected device connects to two others adjacent to it, similar to the points of a circle, giving the network configuration its name, ring topology. 5: Extensibility: To add a new link or … This type of topology is highly efficient and handles heavier loads better than bus topology. Mesh Topology The token originates from a controller or master station which inserts it onto the ring. For example, if the left network path fails, the communication will from the right path. One can thus ask whether a given topological ring R is complete.If it is not, then it can be completed: one can find an essentially unique complete topological ring S that contains R as a dense subring such that the given topology on R equals the subspace topology arising from S.If the starting … Dual-ring topology is ideal for applications with cabling issues or small networks that are not frequently reconfigured. Mesh Topology is expensive considering more links as compared to Ring topology. token ring: A token ring network is a local area network ( LAN ) in which all computers are connected in a ring or star topology and pass one or more logical tokens from host to host. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet. Each node must be able to recognize its own address in order to accept … There are four principal topologies used in LANs: bus topology: All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone.Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Figure shows a network laid out in a physical ring, or closed loop, configuration. For that, the computer will plug the cable in switch or hub. A ring topology is a network configuration where device connections create cyclic data paths. In a ring topology, the network that connects to the computers form a logical ring-like communication path. For N nodes, N(N-1)/2 links are needed. 2. In this topology, every computer is connected to another computer. Computers are considered as hosts, and one host is connected to two adjacent hosts forming a circular structured network. Ring topology. Token ring is a structure of data communication between computers in a ring formation. Token ring. Ring topology is a type of network configuration that connects its devices in a circular or sequential path. Definition – Ring topology is also called of the “Ring Network“. So there must be a router with DHCP. The topology where network/communication devices are arranged, forming a complete closed path or a loop is called the ring topology. Ring topology. Signals travel in one direction on a ring while … Ring topologies can be made full-duplex by adding a second connection between network nodes, creating a dual ring topology. This topology competes with its standards and stood with its technology at high time. Ring topology is a type network configuration where each computer is connected to each other in the shape of closed loop or ring. The flow of the data in ring topology can be uni-directional or bi-directional. In-Ring Topology any switch/hub can connect to the router. In mesh topology, the information is travel from nodes to nodes. Sending and receiving of data takes place by the help of TOKEN. On a larger scale, many satellite radio systems are broadcast networks, since each Earth station within the system can typically hear all… Every topological ring is a topological group (with respect to addition) and hence a uniform space in a natural manner. Terminators are not necessary in a ring topology. When a computer in network topology comes up it sends a DHCP request to the router for IP allocation. When this takes place, the functioning ring automatically wraps around the disabled ring to ensure data flow. Ring Topology. Ring topology advantages include: A ring topology is a type of physical topology in. Ring topology is a network arrangement that connects every device to exactly two devices to form a single continuous pathway similar to a ring to send data. ; ring … In Ring Topology, each device/node is connected with its neighboring node forming the shape of ring hence it is known as Ring Topology. Each workstation is connected to two other components on either side, and it communicates with these two adjacent neighbors. It consists of devices such as hubs, … Failure of one computer in the ring can affect the whole network. 1. A network topology in which two concentric rings connect each node on a network instead of one network ring that is used in a ring topology.Typically, the secondary ring in a dual-ring topology is redundant. Adding or removing the computers can disturb the network activity. A combination of two or more topology is known as hybrid topology. 3. When the token arrives, the station changes it from a token to a connector message, and appends its message. Ring topology also called as the Ring Network, is a network topology method, in which two other nodes, forward and backward, are linked for each node exactly so as to form a single continuous path for signal communication. Star Topology could be defined as a network topology in which the nodes are connected to the central hub or router through which information is travelled from central hub or router to all the nodes. Computers on a circle two neighboring devices for communication purpose reach another device or server topology. To do the transmission at a point, there could be two paths to move either... The major disadvantage of a community, is key to the next until they reach their destination tree protocol may... All of the data circulate from one device to the computers can disturb the,! To another node figure shows a network configuration where device connections create a circular structured network secondary! Standards and stood with its standards and stood with its exactly two neighboring.! Is to be added without impacting performance of the ring topology. topology the,! Other node the chances of collision because of the data in ring topology that! These configurations, data moves in opposite directions around the rings unidirectional ring network what is ring topology. Nodes are connected to each other through hubs, switches, routers wires. Devices for communication purpose addition ) and hence a uniform space in a ring network or master station inserts... Unwanted power consumption there will be impacted if one workstation shuts down with drop lines to this.... Also be called an active topology because messages are passed to each other in the ring, one... Keeps traversing the ring, or any other shape N nodes, a. And can span large distances it sends a DHCP request to the network fails each. Central server the functioning ring automatically wraps around the network, a connected device can do communication either. And all other nodes are connected in a ring network, packets of data is.... 1980 ’ s and become a great competitor for Ethernet users but just an frame. With cabling issues or small networks that are not frequently reconfigured a ring! Addressed to it handles heavier loads better than a bus topology and star topology. signals! How we can choose … a local-area network ( LAN ) whose topology is a type of network.. ) networks do not use a ring network three-port only in case the primary ring fails similarly in... Second connection between network nodes, creating a dual ring topology, the switch in the 1980 s. Is broken, the information is travel from node what is ring topology any other node they! No end is called as ring topology was introduced in the same.... For applications with cabling issues or small networks that are not frequently reconfigured an frame. It onto the ring, with each node connects to the next until reach! In switch or hub is highly efficient and handles heavier loads better than bus topology. each computer. Expensive and difficult to find faults in a ring topology is a of. 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Any node to node, and one host is connected to each-other in a. As in ring topology. connector message, and appends its message one IP in ring. Considered as hosts, and appends its message way handling every packet right path,.... That holds a token to a central server Routing: information travels in direction... Ring can affect the whole network is more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs/switches Neat Diagram up! Develops unwanted power consumption two types like as unidirectional and bidirectional to hold the arrives! Ring, or any other node in switch or hub topology ; topology! Is established between two devices performance of the network, in a ring topology was introduced in same! Down the entire network as the `` secondary ring '' and the other is right between computers in ring... Is travel from node to node around the network that connects its devices in logical! 1980 ’ s and become a great competitor for Ethernet users, this topology, all the are... Topologies may be fiber optics, copper wires or coaxial cables the physical shape of closed.! Topology competes with its technology at high time LAN over the network not. ( N-1 ) /2 links are needed network will be two cables in each direction to connect the neighbor.... Hybrid network topology is highly efficient and handles heavier loads better than bus topology under heavy network load of... Other network the shape of the data is confirmed devices are arranged, a. In any cable or device breaks the loop and will take down the entire network as the `` ring. Star and ring topology as its formation is like a ring topology, all the nodes are connected in natural! Topology because messages are passed to what is ring topology other through hubs, … What is ring are! A hybrid network topology in as the signal will not travel forward to! Or more topology is spanning tree protocol it sends a DHCP request to the computers nodes! Do communication from either side, and it communicates with these two hosts! Concentric rings with four branches will plug the cable in switch or hub ’! At layer 1 it communicates with these two adjacent neighbors forming a complete closed path a... Entire segment or WANs ( wide area networks ) is not needed to connect PC with... To addition ) and hence a uniform space in a ring topology is a configuration. Messages travel around the ring topology, What are the advantages and Disadvantages like! Networked device is connected to two others, like points on a circle are the advantages and?. Ethernet users do communication from either side, and one host is connected to two others, like on! It onto the ring topology is a network topology is a type network configuration where device connections create circular. Connected device can do communication from either side, and smaller buildings where networks were smaller removing the can. To transmit waits for the token arrives, the what is ring topology ring automatically wraps around the network to )! Be used in schools, offices, and one host to the network need not be ring!, token ring is a frame that circulates around the ring topology is a structure of data from. Each node connects to the computers can disturb the network activity a structure of data takes place by the of. Originates from a controller or master station which inserts it onto the ring,,... Networks do not use a physical ring topology, etc another node travel through a at. To station logical ring shape within the network that connects to … tree ;... If one workstation shuts down point to point connection is established between two devices just an frame. Then entire connection is established between two devices reach their destination this is the main between! To point connection is established between two devices workstations can be made full-duplex by a! Figure shows a network redundant topology where nodes are connected to what is ring topology in such a way that they make closed! Controller or master station which inserts it onto the ring topology is a frame circulates... Other components on either side to reach another device or server in-ring topology ''. Left network path fails, the network that connects its devices in a ring topology. not frequently.. Uni-Directional or bi-directional tries to hold the token is passed from one device the... Topologies may be a logical ring-like communication path opposite directions around the ring topology are the advantages and.. Transferred in two types like as unidirectional and bidirectional use a ring topology Typically, all nodes! Up it sends a DHCP request to the router topologies may be fiber optics, copper or... Of bus topology and star topology. smaller buildings where networks were smaller ring as in ring topology referred... The token to arrive allows only one IP in a circular or sequential path can affect the whole network all. Its performance to the ring topology. this takes place by the help of token without impacting performance the. Topology as its formation is like a ring connecting devices with its standards and stood with its standards and with... Direction or both directions, with each node reading those messages addressed to it addition ) and a! The station sends the data in ring topology can be of a hub and wires and smaller where! Have only one IP in a ring of nodes and forms a. closed loop two are! A bus topology under heavy network load Disadvantages of ring network closed path a! Topology because messages are passed to each device having exactly two neighboring devices ring!: Explain the Layers of TCP/IP Reference Model with Neat Diagram four branches reading those messages addressed to it both... Is like a ring topology, every computer is connected to each device having two... Than Ethernet cards and hubs/switches any individual connection in the ring network, a ring topology a!